Ron and Carolyn Borkowski visit with the UK Sanders-Brown Center team member Marie Smart.

UK Sanders-Brown Center receives $8.25 million for Alzheimer’s research

The UK Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Alzheimer’s Disease Center (ADC) has been awarded an $8.25 million, five-year grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to continue and further research and clinical initiatives geared toward treating Alzheimer’s disease.

Currently, only 30 designated Alzheimer’s Disease Centers exist in the U.S. In 1985, Sanders-Brown was among the first 10 ADCs funded by the NIH and has been continuously funded since the designation was launched.

The power of advanced medicine

“The Sanders-Brown Center on Aging is one of UK’s outstanding centers, and continued federal funding from the National Institutes of Health is yet another acknowledgement of its excellence,” said UK President Dr. Eli Capilouto. “The University of Kentucky is proud to play a leading role in the international effort to discover solutions for what is arguably one of society’s greatest medical mysteries and challenges.”

Capilouto noted that the University of Kentucky is one of an elite group of 21 universities in the nation to house a trifecta of nationally accredited research institutions, including a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer research center (Markey Cancer Center), an NIH-funded Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) and the National Institute on Aging-funded Alzheimer’s research center (Sanders-Brown Center on Aging).

More than just research

U.S. Rep. Andy Barr said the grant means much more than dollars and cents. “By 2050, Alzheimer’s diagnoses are expected to triple, with an associated cost of more than $1 trillion,” Barr said. “We cannot stand by and watch people suffer both financially and emotionally, and this grant rightfully continues a legacy that has benefited not only the citizens of Lexington and the Commonwealth but also people around the world.”

According to Linda Van Eldik, PhD, director of Sanders-Brown, the center is a leader in the detection of early neuropathological changes in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s and other age-related dementias, made possible in part by a large cohort of more than 800 volunteers – both healthy and cognitively impaired – in the Sanders-Brown Longitudinal Study, which generates significant amounts of data about how healthy brain aging occurs and when and why some people develop Alzheimer’s.

However, she says, research is just one component of the center’s efforts.

“We often say Alzheimer’s is a family disease.  It affects the patient primarily, but it is a devastating financial and emotional burden for family and caregivers as well,” she said. “Sanders-Brown offers outreach, education and support to help patients and their families get the help they need to lead active and engaged lives.”

“We’re honored that the NIH continues to recognize the caliber and scope of our work with this grant,” Van Eldik said.

‘Sanders-Brown is a jewel in our own backyard’

Ron and Carolyn Borkowski of Lexington are both givers to and beneficiaries of Sanders-Brown’s work. Carolyn, who was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s in 2012, is a patient, and both she and Ron participate in the Longitudinal Study and will donate their brains to Sanders-Brown upon their deaths.

“I’d hate to see where we’d be without Sanders-Brown,” Ron said. “The doctors and the staff are not just with you – they are truly for you.”

“Sanders-Brown is a jewel in our own backyard.”

UK initiated its aging program in 1963. With a grant from the Eleanor and John Y. Brown Jr. Foundation in 1972, the construction of the current Sanders-Brown Research Building was begun and, with additional funding from the state, a program in biomedical research was implemented. In 1979, under the direction of the late Dr. William Markesbery, Sanders-Brown emerged as a national leader in efforts to improve the quality of life for the elderly through research and education.

Treatment options for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy

Treatments available for drug-resistant epilepsy

Written by Dr. Frank Gilliam, director of the Epilepsy Center at the Kentucky Neuroscience Institute at the University of Kentucky. 

Dr. Frank Gilliam

Dr. Frank Gilliam

One in 26 people will develop epilepsy – a chronic disease characterized by unpredictable seizures — in their lifetime.

A seizure is a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that can temporarily change how a person thinks or behaves. Seizures can be scary for both the patient and the people around them, since patients can lose awareness or even become unconscious, twitch or spasm, babble, have blurry or no vision, experience difficulty breathing, and/or a host of other symptoms.

Epilepsy has numerous physical and emotional costs. People with epilepsy have problems keeping up in school or at work, can be depressed and/or socially isolated, can suffer physical injury during a seizure, and can even die from a seizure. They may not be allowed to drive, play sports or have other restrictions that affect their professional or personal lives.

It’s important to remember that not all seizures are epilepsy. A person is diagnosed with epilepsy if they have one or more seizures that were not caused by some known and reversible medical condition such as diabetes. People can develop seizures after a brain injury (like a car accident or getting hit in the head with a baseball), a stroke, or because of an infection or a brain tumor. Sometimes there is a family history of seizures, but often the cause is unknown.

If you suspect you have had a seizure, you should see your family doctor or a neurologist for an evaluation. That is likely to include a detailed conversation about what happened during your seizure, medications you are taking, preexisting illnesses or injuries, family history and more. The doctor is also likely to order blood tests that might identify treatable medical disorders, an EEG, which measures brain waves and looks for abnormalities that point to epilepsy or other neurological disorders, and possibly also a CAT scan or MRI to look for abnormal areas of the brain.

There is no cure for epilepsy, but two-thirds of all people with epilepsy are able to control their seizures with medications. The remaining one-third have what’s called “drug-resistant” or “refractory” epilepsy. In those cases, patients may be able to find relief through surgery or through devices that can help override the abnormal electrical impulses in the brain.

In the U.S., there are more than 100,000 patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, and only about 2,000 people have the surgery every year. Patients don’t need to suffer from the physical and emotional effects of epilepsy for 10 or 20 years. If someone has uncontrolled epilepsy for more than a year, they should seek an opinion at an accredited epilepsy center.


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UK researcher leads International Epilepsy Cure Initiative

With the help of an $8.5 million grant, a UK researcher will lead an international team of scientists to pursue a cure for Lafora’s disease, a deadly neurodegenerative condition.

Lafora’s disease appears in patients during adolescence and causes severe epilepsy, loss of speech and muscle control, and dementia, eventually leading to death.

Matthew Gentry

Matthew Gentry

Under the guidance of University of Kentucky College of Medicine Professor Matthew Gentry, the five-year National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant establishes the International Epilepsy Cure Center based at the UK College of Medicine’s Department of Molecular Medicine and Biochemistry. The center represents a collaborative effort to advance translational research and improve the diagnosis and treatment of Lafora’s disease, with the ultimate goal of finding a cure.

The center, which is funded by an NIH Program Project Grant, provides a framework for uniting multidisciplinary researchers in conducting important research exploring the molecular mechanisms that underlie Lafora’s disease.

The team comprises distinguished basic science researchers from around the world, including Gentry, a professor of molecular and cellular biochemistry at UK, Joan Guinovart in Barcelona, Spain; Berge Minassian of the Hospital for Sick Kids in Toronto, Canada; Peter Roach of Indiana University; and Jose Serratosa of Autonoma University of Madrid in Madrid, Spain.

“It is an amazing opportunity to lead this group of distinguished scientists from around the world towards such an important goal,” Gentry said. “Each of us have worked independently for more than a decade on Lafora’s disease and this grant now brings us together to develop the first cure for an epilepsy.”

Learn more about the Lafora’s disease and Gentry’s efforts to find a cure.

Blood thinners

Are the new blood thinner options right for you?

Written by George Davis, anticoagulation program pharmacist coordinator with UK HealthCare.

George Davis

George Davis

Blood thinners are commonly prescribed for prevention of stroke in patients with certain heart conditions or for treatment of blood clots. These drugs, also known as anticoagulants, can save lives for patients who have blood clots or are at high risk for them. However, the arrival of a new class of anticoagulants creates a confusing array of choices. Here are some basics to help you decide which medication is right for you.

All blood thinners cause an increased risk of bleeding – sometimes life-threatening – but that shouldn’t prevent doctors from prescribing it or patients from taking it. One-third of U.S. patients with atrial fibrillation, or afib, who need anticoagulation aren’t receiving it, according to a recently published major study.

With a 50-year track record, warfarin is the traditional option. For patients well managed on warfarin, it can be safe and effective. However, warfarin requires some trial and error to determine the most effective dose while minimizing bleeding hazards, initially requiring frequent (every few days to weekly) lab monitoring (called INR) and can be affected by factors like age, diet and other medications you are taking.

In the last five years, there have been four direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) approved in the United States: apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban. When compared to warfarin in major clinical trials, these DOACs were equally effective and demonstrated a lower incidence of major bleeding. DOACs have other advantages, including no need for routine lab monitoring, fewer drug and diet interactions, and more predictable dosing.

But DOACs still can cause bleeding and patients should routinely see a health care provider to check for compliance, drug interactions, and any changes in kidney or liver function, since DOACs can have some associated adverse effects. Additionally, DOACs are more expensive than warfarin, although manufacturers offer assistance programs to qualified patients that can help defray costs.

If a patient on the DOAC dabigatran experiences severe bleeding, a recently approved drug can help reverse that, and an antidote for the other three DOACs may be available soon.

While DOACs are effective, patients already taking warfarin shouldn’t automatically switch to a DOAC, especially if they are tolerating warfarin well.

Now more than ever, if your doctor wants you to begin taking a blood thinner, discussing the different options available is important. This discussion can educate you about the benefits of preventing blood clots versus risk of bleeding.

As always, don’t ever stop or make changes to any medication you’ve been prescribed without telling your health care provider.

George Davis is the anticoagulation program pharmacist coordinator with UK HealthCare Pharmacy Services and the UK Gill Heart Institute, and associate adjunct professor at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy.


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UK Albert B. Chandler Hospital

KNI Stroke Center awarded for high-quality patient care

UK HealthCare’s Kentucky Neuroscience Institute (KNI) has received the Get With The Guidelines – Stroke Gold-Plus Quality Achievement Award by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association for maintaining nationally recognized standards for the treatment of stroke patients.

KNI also received the association’s Target: Stroke Honor Roll Elite for meeting stroke quality measures that reduce the time between hospital arrival and treatment with the clot-buster tPA, the only drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat ischemic stroke.

Over 12 months, at least 75 percent of the hospital’s ischemic stroke patients received tPA within 60 minutes of arriving at the hospital (known as door-to-needle time). Stroke patients who receive tPA within three hours of the onset of symptoms may recover more quickly and are less likely to suffer severe disability.

This year marks the sixth year that KNI has received Gold Plus designation. KNI has been named to the Target: Stroke Honor Roll the past three years and repeats for the ‘elite’ level that was introduced last year.

Kentucky patients aren’t the only ones benefiting from this achievement.

“By participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program, we are able to share our expertise with other member hospitals around the country, including access to the most up-to-date research, clinical tools and resources, and patient education resources,” said Dr. Jessica Lee, medical director of the KNI Comprehensive Stroke Center.

Dr. Larry Goldstein, chair of the UK Department of Neurology and co-director of KNI, said that “Comprehensive Stroke Center status reflects our capability to provide the most advanced care for patients with stroke. These awards further underscore the hard work of our multidisciplinary team of neurologists, neurosurgeons, emergency physicians, nurses, therapists and others to optimize care delivery for stroke patients right here in Lexington.”

According to the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, stroke is the number five cause of death and a leading cause of adult disability in the United States. In Kentucky, cardiovascular disease (which includes stroke) is the leading cause of death.  On average, someone suffers a stroke every 40 seconds; someone dies of a stroke every four minutes; and 785,000 people suffer a new or recurrent stroke each year.

The KNI Stroke Center is also also certified as a “Comprehensive Stroke Center” by The Joint Commission – its highest honor.

Research shows exercise may prevent Alzheimer’s

A group of researchers led by Nathan Johnson, Ph.D., of the University of Kentucky College of Health Sciences, found a positive correlation between fitness and blood flow to areas of the brain where Alzheimer’s disease is usually first detected. This suggests that exercise might provide some measure of protection from Alzheimer’s and other dementias.

Thirty men and women ages 59-69 were given treadmill fitness assessments and ultrasounds of the heart. Then they received brain scans to look for blood flow to certain areas of the brain.

“We set out to characterize the relationship between heart function, fitness, and cerebral blood flow, which no other study had explored to date,” Johnson said.  “In other words, if you’re in good physical shape, does that improve blood flow to critical areas of the brain? And does that improved blood flow provide some form of protection from dementia?”

The results showed blood flow to critical areas of the brain was higher in those who were more physically fit. This means that the supply of oxygen and vital nutrients is also higher. Essentially, this study indicates that regular exercise at any age could keep the mind young, said Johnson.

“Can we prove irrefutably that increased fitness will prevent Alzheimer’s disease?  Not at this point,” Johnson said.  “But this is an important first step towards demonstrating that being physically active improves blood flow to the brain and confers some protection from dementia, and conversely that people who live sedentary lifestyles, especially those who are genetically predisposed to Alzheimer’s, might be more susceptible.”

Since people who exercise frequently often have reduced arterial stiffness, Johnson and his team believe that regular physical activity maintains the integrity of the “pipes” that carry blood to the brain. Their study is taking great steps in the right direction. And that’s what it’s all about – taking proactive measures to combat diseases like Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.


Next Steps

Epilepsy

13-year-old boy enjoys being “normal kid” again after epilepsy surgery

Anyone who’s 13 years old – or who was once 13 – can relate to the embarrassment of a parent insisting on sitting in the room while they showered.

Unfortunately, that was the reality for 13-year-old Joey Maggard until a delicate surgical procedure eliminated his epileptic seizures this past January.

At the time of his surgery, Joey’s seizures were so frequent and unpredictable – about 20 to 30 per month – that his mother, Erin Smith, would sit in the bathroom in case he seized while showering.

“It was so frustrating for him and heartbreaking for me,” Erin recalls. “He wanted so much to be ‘just a kid,’ but the reality was that being ‘just a kid’ could have been dangerous for him.”

Adding to the disappointment were the other restrictions imposed upon Joey. He could no longer play his beloved sports or have sleepovers with friends. He was forced to follow a restricted diet and reduce Xbox and electronics use. After his seizures increased in frequency, his school district asked that he be tutored at home for the last half of his sixth grade year.

A very understanding doctor

“Epilepsy is often misunderstood by the lay public, and epilepsy patients are often teased or shunned, particularly when they are younger,” said Dr. Meriem Bensalem-Owen, director of the Epilepsy Program at the Kentucky Neuroscience Institute at the University of Kentucky. “As a result, they often isolate themselves for fear of losing control in public, and depression and anxiety commonly go hand-in-hand with the stigma of epilepsy.”

Bensalem-Owen considers it part of her responsibility to reassure patients that they are not alone in their journey.

“More than 150,000 Kentuckians are living with epilepsy today,” she explains. “I think many patients are surprised when I tell them that.”

Even more reassuring, Bensalem-Owen believes, is the fact that she has a personal experience with epilepsy.

“My son had seizures few years ago, and I literally told myself ‘OK, so now I have to be as brave as the parents of my patients and do what I tell them to do.’ So I understand, not just as an epileptologist but as mom, what Joey and his family were going through and I can reinforce with them that there is a team with them step of the way.”

An epilepsy center to get the job done

Joey’s odyssey began when he was 9. Erin said that while Joey’s birth was stressful, otherwise “he was great, he hit every milestone.” With no family history, his first and second seizures – about six months apart – were a shock to his family. After Joey experienced a grand mal seizure – considered the most violent and dangerous of all seizures – a CAT scan at a hospital close to their Lincoln County home found a lesion in his brain. He was referred to Dr. Qutubuddin G. Khan, a pediatric neurologist at the Kentucky Neuroscience Institute (KNI).

The Epilepsy Program at KNI is accredited by the National Association of Epilepsy Centers (NAEC) as Level 4 Center — its highest designation. A Level 4 center provides more extensive medical, neuropsychological, and psychosocial treatment, including thorough and highly technical evaluation for a wide range of surgical treatment for epilepsy. Since 2003, US News and World Report has included NAEC Level 4 adult epilepsy centers as a part of its ranking criteria.

“Level 4 epilepsy centers have the professional expertise and facilities to provide the highest-level medical and surgical evaluation and treatment for patients with complex epilepsy,” said Dr. Larry Goldstein, chair of the UK Department of Neurology and KNI co-director. “To achieve this designation is an apt reflection of our institutional commitment to provide the best subspecialty care to the people of Kentucky and beyond.”

At first, Khan tried a variety of medications, alone and in combination. Each time, says Erin, they would work for a while, but Joey’s seizures would eventually return.

“One of the things I loved most about Dr. Khan was how candid he was,” said Erin. “After each setback, he’d sit with us and explain patiently what our next options were and the pros and cons of each option.”

Based on initial testing to determine what areas of the brain Joey’s seizures came from, Khan felt Joey was a good candidate for surgery, and referred him to Bensalem-Owen for further evaluation.

A crucial step in the process of assessing Joey’s seizures — and a hallmark of centers with NAEC Level 4 accreditation — is invasive brain monitoring, where the skull is opened and a delicate web of electrodes is placed directly on the brain. Over a period of days Joey was monitored and brain mapping was performed to pinpoint exactly which parts of his brain controlled essential functions like speech, and those points were compared to the areas were his seizures arose. It’s a painstaking and uncomfortable process.

“I asked Joey if he was ready for this, and he looked me straight in the eye and said YES,” said Bensalem-Owen. “He said he was tired of missing school and having poor grades. I was impressed by how determined and brave he was.”

Brain mapping indicated three small areas that were leading to Joey’s seizures. Two areas were perilously close to the part of Joey’s brain that controlled vision and motor function; Bensalem-Owen knew that precision was critical to a successful outcome for Joey.

Once the doctors knew which parts of Joey’s brain to target and which parts to avoid, KNI neurosurgeon Dr. Thomas Pittman performed the surgery to remove the lesions that were causing his seizures. Then began the waiting game.

“Joey’s been seizure-free since his surgery,” said Amy. “He now can take showers and be alone outside without my constant supervision. I know we’ve got a ways to go before we’re out of the woods, but this has been a huge burden lifted.”

Furthermore, says Bensalem-Owen, Joey’s vision and other motor function have remained intact. “We couldn’t have hoped for a better outcome,” she said.

Surgery shouldn’t be treated as a last resort

Bensalem-Owen stresses that while surgery isn’t an option for everyone, there are large swaths of individuals with epilepsy who either don’t know about or are afraid of surgery, and those people are suffering needlessly.

“In the U.S., there are more than 100,000 patients who are candidates for surgery, and only about 2,000 people elect to have the surgery every year,” she said. “We need to educate patients and healthcare providers that surgery shouldn’t be treated as a last resort, that patients don’t need to suffer from the physical and emotional effects of epilepsy for ten or twenty years. If someone has uncontrolled epilepsy for more than a year, they should seek an opinion at an accredited epilepsy center.”

In a post-surgery appointment with Bensalem-Owen, Joey was bouncy and talkative. His hair was growing back, mostly covering the scar that extends from the top of his head to just behind his ear. His grades have rebounded since his return to school in March and he has been cleared to play sports in June. He will continue epilepsy medication as an added precaution, but Bensalem-Owen predicts a complete return to the life that allows kids to be just that — kids.

“On my first day back to school, as I was going down the hall teachers were shrieking and kids were hugging me,” Joey recalled with a smile. “I was back with my buddies again, and I was so happy.”


Next steps

Understanding the signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease

Know the signs of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease

Forgetfulness is something many of us will experience as we get older. It’s a normal part of aging. But when memory loss starts to interfere with daily life, it can be a sign of a more serious issue such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia, a group of conditions that affect mental capability and can cause memory loss. While there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, one way to limit its effects is to identify it as early as possible.

Alzheimer’s usually affects people who are 65 or older, so if there’s a senior in your life, be aware of these signs and symptoms.

  • Forgetting important information: It’s normal for someone to forget a date or a name but suddenly remember it later. However, pay attention if they ask for the same information repeatedly or struggle to recall important dates (like their own birthdate).
  • Lack of problem-solving skills: Are they having trouble following a recipe? Problem-solving skills can deteriorate in someone with Alzheimer’s or dementia.
  • Difficulty completing familiar tasks: Do they get lost when driving to a familiar location? If they have difficulty completing familiar tasks, it might be a sign of Alzheimer’s.
  • Using incorrect words: Healthy people can occasionally a struggle to find the right word, but using the wrong word – particularly if they call something by the wrong name – merits further scrutiny.
  • Poor hygiene. Is the person suddenly displaying odd behavior related to clean clothes, bathing, oral health or shaving? It’s not uncommon for a person with Alzheimer’s to lose interest in personal hygiene.
  • Personality changes: Are they suddenly irrational, fearful or suspicious?

If a loved one in your life is experiencing any of these symptoms, make an appointment with a doctor.

And be sure to check out our infographic below for more information about Alzheimer’s disease in Kentucky.

Alzheimer's infographic


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Tom and Nancy Conley

Family takes action to help fight Alzheimer’s disease

Nearly 68,000 Kentuckians today are suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, but the emotional and financial tolls are much higher. That’s because, in the words of Linda Van Eldik, Alzheimer’s is a “family disease.”

“Alzheimer’s affects the patient, of course, but as the disease progresses, it is also devastating for the people who love and care for that patient,” said Van Eldik, director of the University of Kentucky Sanders-Brown Center on Aging.

While a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s or other age-related dementias brings an incredible amount of uncertainty to patients and their families, the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging (SBCoA) provides information, support and hope. So say Tom Conley and daughters Terri and Susie, whose wife and mother Nancy was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s in 2009. The Conley family hails from Louisville, but they found care for Nancy in Lexington at UK.

“The care Nancy got while she was at Sanders-Brown and the clinical trials she participated in, I think slowed the disease down,” Tom said.

Nancy passed away from breast cancer in November of 2014.  Looking back the Conley daughters feel grateful that their mother’s last years were full of good memories.

“I got my mother — my real mother — a few more years than I probably would have if she had gone untreated,” Terri said.

SBCoA was established in 1979 and is one of the original 10 National Institutes of Health-funded Alzheimer’s Disease Research Centers. It is internationally acclaimed for its work in the fight against age-related diseases.

Faculty and researchers work together within the framework of the Center’s mission to explore the aging process and its implications for society. Research spans bench to bedside, from defining disease mechanisms in the brain and exploring cellular changes that lead to AD, to studies exploring healthy aging and ways to lower risk of dementia, to clinical trials testing potential new therapies that slow or stop the progression of age-related diseases of the brain.

“We are trying to cure Alzheimer’s and we know that here at the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging we will be part of that cure,” said Dr. Greg Jicha, professor of neurology at the UK College of Medicine and SBCoA. “Whether it comes next year or comes five years from now or 20 years from now, we will be playing a central role in that ultimate goal.”

Tom Conley hopes he’ll have a role, too. He continues to volunteer at Sanders-Brown and encourages others to donate their time and resources, all in the name of providing support for patients suffering from Alzheimer’s and their families.

Watch this video to learn how Sanders-Brown helped the Conley family extend Nancy’s quality of life and why philanthropy is so integral to ensuring that UK researchers contribute to finding a cure for Alzheimer’s disease while also helping other Kentucky families.

As Tom puts it, “You have a jewel right here in little old Lexington and we need to keep polishing it.”


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Forgetfulness or dementia? How to tell the difference in elderly loved ones

If you’re spending time with elderly friends and family members this holiday season, be aware of noticeable changes in their memory and behavior, as these can be early warning signs of dementia.

“If you haven’t seen your elderly loved one in a while, you might be more likely to notice changes in their memory and behavior that worries you,” said Dr. Gregory Jicha of the University of Kentucky Sanders-Brown Center on Aging.

Here are some early warning signs of dementia that you might notice in an older friend or family member:

  • It’s normal for someone to forget a date or a name but suddenly remember it later. However, pay attention if they ask for the same information repeatedly, or struggle to recall important dates (like their own birthdate).
  • Are they having trouble following a recipe? Problem-solving skills can deteriorate in someone with Alzheimer’s.
  • Do they get lost when driving to a familiar location? If they have difficulty completing familiar tasks, it might be a sign of AD.
  • Healthy people occasionally struggle to find the right word, but using the wrong word  ̶  particularly if they call something by the wrong name  ̶  merits further scrutiny.
  • Poor judgment: are they giving lots of money to telemarketers or charities?
  • Poor hygiene.
  • Personality changes: are they suddenly irrational, fearful or suspicious?

Memory infographic

If you see any behavior that worries you, talk to your doctor. To make an appointment with a UK HealthCare doctor, visit our Appointment page or call 800-333-8874 today.

More information:

The Memory Disorders Clinic at the Kentucky Neuroscience Institute