This week’s Gallery Hop features artwork from UK HealthCare, Eastern State patients

Patients from the UK Markey Cancer Center and Eastern State Hospital are getting the unique opportunity to feature their artwork during this week’s LexArts Gallery Hop.

The exhibit is part of a program called CREATE, which was founded in partnership by the Lexington community, UK Arts in HealthCare and the UK School of Art and Visual Studies. CREATE aims to expand, promote and raise awareness about the ways in which art positively affects health and wellness. Named “Expressions of Hope and Healing through the Arts,” the Gallery Hop exhibit will be open from 5-8 p.m. this Friday at Arts Place, located at 161 N. Mill St. in Lexington.

In addition to the visual art exhibit, staff and faculty from the School of Art and Visual Studies will demonstrate innovative art applications for enhancing the quality of life for people with Alzheimer’s and dementia.

Following the Gallery Hop exhibit, CREATE will host a panel discussion from 10:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. on Saturday, March 18 at Arts Place. Panelists will discuss their approaches to healing through the arts. The panelists include art therapist Fran Belvin, music therapist Austin Robinson, psychologist Gary Stewart, art historian Linda Stratford, Arts in HealthCare specialist Jason Akhtarekhavari and moderator Jesse Mark.

The public is invited to participate with questions and comments. There is no charge for the event, and attendees may bring lunch to enjoy during the discussion.

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Pneumonia in Bangladeshi children is pandemic, and their current healthcare model makes it difficult to treat. But KCH's Dr. Fuchs may have a solution.

UK pediatrician uses his expertise to save children in Bangladesh

In developing countries, pneumonia is the leading cause of disease-related death in children ages 5 and younger, accounting for more than 1 million deaths a year. Most of the world’s pediatric pneumonia cases are condensed to Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, including Bangladesh, where the disease is pandemic.

Bangladeshi children diagnosed with pneumonia also often suffer from malnutrition, an undertreated condition that increases the likelihood of death from pneumonia. In developing countries, more than half of all pediatric deaths in children younger than 5 are associated with a moderate to severe malnutrition diagnosis. If both conditions are not treated, children are susceptible to recurrent pneumonia and further health complications that can lead to death.

Now, after years of researching this problem, Dr. George Fuchs, a pediatric gastroenterologist at Kentucky Children’s Hospital, is working to improve the care Bangladeshi children receive and to reduce the number of deaths related to pneumonia and malnutrition.

Through his research, Fuchs found barriers in the Bangladesh healthcare system that delayed care for children suffering from severe pneumonia and underlying nutritional deficiencies. A scarcity of hospital beds, limited pediatric resources and practical barriers  such as the burden of hospitalization on the family  prevent children from receiving sufficient treatment for both conditions. Fuchs and collaborators at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with funding from UNICEF and UBS Optimus Foundation, proposed a solution to address these health system barriers and decrease child mortality in Bangladesh.

The Day-Care Approach

Fuchs, who has studied nutritional deficiencies and interventions in developing countries since the late 1980s, is conducting a multisite trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment method called the Day-Care Approach (DCA). This new pediatric care model responds to a lack of hospital beds and pediatric resources by diverting children with severe illness to outpatient, or day-care, clinics.

These day-care clinics provide safe and effective therapies for severe forms of pneumonia and malnutrition, as well as diarrhea and other common illnesses, during the daytime hours. Previous studies in controlled settings have shown the success of the DCA model in treating severe pneumonia and malnutrition. Compared with traditional hospital care, the DCA system model reduces healthcare costs by a third. Fuchs and his colleagues are now testing a scaled-up version of the DCA model in the Bangladesh healthcare system.

“I realized these children were not getting treatment, and these are really sick kids, so I said, ‘Let’s at least try something else with an outpatient approach,’” Fuchs said. “It has to be better than the alternative, which is no care.”

Since January 2015, Fuchs has collected and analyzed outcome data from patients treated in the DCA model and compared it to data from patients in the existing model of hospitalized care. In the existing healthcare system, community health workers identify children with pneumonia and refer them to local health clinics, where their symptoms are categorized as moderate or severe. Those children in the moderate category are sent home with 48-hour antibiotics.

However, children presenting to the local clinic with severe pneumonia and those who fail the 48 hours of antibiotics are sent to the hospital for supportive therapies, such as airway suction, fluids, nutrition, antibiotics and constant oversight.

In the DCA model, children receive the same initial treatment, with community health workers locating pneumonia cases and determining severity. What’s different is that children with severe pneumonia or those who fail antibiotics at home are sent directly to the day-care clinic, where they receive supportive therapies throughout the day. They then return to their homes in the evening and come back for care the following morning. Hospitalization occurs only if the treatment available through the day-care service fails.

According to Fuchs, an initial set of studies over 10 years indicates the DCA model is a viable and sustainable system with the potential to reduce the rates of pediatric mortality caused by pneumonia and malnutrition. The DCA model is also much less costly for both the health system and for families seeking treatment. While data collection is ongoing for the current trial, Fuchs is encouraged by the preliminary analysis.

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DCA model overcomes barriers to care

The DCA system also proved more feasible and desirable for Bangladeshi families. In the traditional Bangladeshi household, the mother cares for multiple children throughout the day while the father works outside the home. As the primary caregivers, mothers confront practical barriers to accessing treatment for one child. The DCA system delivers advanced care so a child doesn’t require a burdensome and costly hospital stay, which families avoid to the point of not seeking treatment.

“The underlying problem is there are not enough hospital beds,” Fuchs said. “Another obstacle is mothers are required to stay with children in the hospital, but they often leave against medical advice or won’t go in the first place because of other important family responsibilities at home.”

Fuchs said health workers in Bangladesh have embraced the DCA intervention as a beneficial treatment system for pediatric pneumonia. If it’s successful on a larger scale, the cost-effective DCA model holds the promise of reducing the occupancy of scarce pediatric beds in regional hospitals, which can be used for children with other illnesses. Fuchs and his collaborators are working with government officials and Bangladeshi health agencies to implement the system as a viable and sustainable replacement for the existing pediatric care system.


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Uncontrolled bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death from trauma. Severe bleeding can lead to death well before paramedics can respond.

In an emergency, follow these steps to stop severe bleeding in others

Hannah Anderson, PA

Written by Hannah Anderson, physician assistant for UK HealthCare Trauma & Acute Surgery, and Amanda Rist, injury prevention/outreach coordinator for UK HealthCare Trauma & Acute Care Surgery.

Uncontrolled bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death from trauma. Severe bleeding can result in death within minutes, before paramedics have a chance to respond. In some cases, the difference between life and death for the victim of an incident is the bravery of a bystander.

How to stop severe bleeding

Research suggests bystanders with little or no scientific training can save lives during an emergency situation. Just like responding to respiratory distress with CPR or intervening with an automatic defibrillator (AED) during cardiac arrest, compressing a wound after a traumatic injury improves the chances of survival for trauma victims. You can turn bystander helplessness into heroism by remembering the following actions:

  • Make sure the scene is safe and call 911. You cannot help anyone if you become injured, so be sure to do this before attending to an injured person.
  • Find the source of the bleeding and apply firm, steady pressure with both hands. If you have a first-aid kit, use safety gloves and cover the wound with a clean bandage. In the absence of a clean cloth, pack the wound using a shirt or cloth.
  • Continue applying pressure until first responders arrive.

Class offering: ‘Stop the Bleed’

Members of the UK HealthCare trauma program are offering a course called Stop the Bleed, an initiative developed by the American College of Surgeons and The Hartford Consensus to train the public. Classes are open to anyone in the community interested in developing life-saving skills, and the first classes will be held at Tates Creek High School on March 28-29. Contact amanda.rist@uky.edu for more information about hosting a class free of charge.

You can learn more tips to Stop the Bleed at http://www.bleedingcontrol.org.


Next steps:

  • The UK HealthCare trauma program is one of only three American College of Surgeons accredited Level 1 Trauma Centers serving Kentucky. Find out more.
  • Learning CPR is important for anyone, and it can be the difference between someone living and dying. Are you familiar with CPR’s five steps? Visit our website to find out.
UK Shriners

UK Pediatric Orthopaedics, UK Advanced Eye Care moving into new Shriners building

The new Shriners Hospitals for Children Medical Center ‒ Lexington building on the UK HealthCare campus, which broke ground in March 2015, will open this spring.

In addition to Shriners, the building will be home to UK Pediatric Orthopaedics and will provide leased space for UK Ophthalmology (now renamed UK Advanced Eye Care).

Current locations of UK Advanced Eye Care along with the UK HealthCare Optical (formerly known as University Optical) will close March 17. They will reopen in the Shriners Building on March 20.

Pediatric orthopaedics patients will be seen in the new Shriners facility beginning April 17, although there will be a period of transition during which patients may be seen at either the current clinic within the Kentucky Clinic building or in the new Shriners space. During this transition, which is expected to last four weeks, parents whose children have a pediatric orthopaedics appointment are encouraged to call 800-444-8314 (toll-free) in advance to confirm where they will be seen.

Inpatient care for pediatric orthopaedics patients will be provided at Kentucky Children’s Hospital.

Members of UK health plans, including the UK-HMO and PPO/EPO options, will see no change in their copay/out-of-pocket charge with this move.

The new Shriners, which will be an outpatient surgical and rehabilitation center, was built on land that Shriners leased from UK. It remains a separate entity that is not owned or managed by UK.

UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine providers serve as the pediatric orthopaedic specialists for Shriners, an arrangement that has been in place since the 1970s.

The proximity of Shriners to Kentucky Children’s Hospital will facilitate collaboration of Shriners’ pediatric orthopaedic expertise and UK HealthCare’s specialty and subspecialty care for children with complex conditions.

Patients and families with appointments in the new facility will park in the UK HealthCare Parking Garage located just across Conn Terrace from Shriners. The building can be accessed via a pedestrian bridge at Level C of the garage.


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Forty seven UK students, faculty and community members will spend their spring break in Ecuador, providing care to those in need.

UK students work across disciplines to provide health services in Ecuador

A group of UK students, faculty and community members will be spending their spring break in Santo Domingo, Ecuador, on an interdisciplinary health brigade experience with Shoulder to Shoulder Global (STSG).

The Centro de Salud Hombro a Hombro clinic, the primary worksite for UK’s STSG volunteers, provides medical care, prevention services, oral health and school-based services to the community. The clinic opened its doors 10 years ago as an initiative led by Dr. Thomas Young, a pediatrician at UK HealthCare.

“It is so exciting to celebrate 10 years of delivering comprehensive health services in this community in Ecuador,” Young said. “STSG and our Ecuadorian partners have provided tens of thousands of patients with services and service learning opportunities for UK students, staff and faculty. We plan to continue to dream big.”

The brigade is a culmination of months of preparation that included the Interprofessional Teamwork in Global Health course. As part of this course, students learned about Ecuador, how to work in an interprofessional environment, and how to apply basic principles of cultural anthropology, sociology, diversity and healthcare to the experience.

This year’s brigade will include students from a variety of colleges including Arts and Sciences, Education, Health Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Public Health and Dentistry.

Whitney White, a third-year dentistry student, said that she hopes to gain an appreciation for Ecuadorian culture and gain valuable skills, which will allow her to make faster and better diagnoses.

“I’m expecting to do a lot of extractions, oral hygiene instruction and diet counseling,” White said. “This experience will also be unique and rewarding because I will work outside of my comfort zone. I know I will return with a new appreciation for how I perform dentistry at home.”


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In recognition of her work at UK CTAC, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network has appointed Ginny Sprang as a member of its steering committee.

UK leader in child trauma appointed to national steering committee

Ginny Sprang, PhD

Ginny Sprang, PhD, professor of psychiatry and a co-founder of the UK Center on Trauma and Children (CTAC), has fought child maltreatment for almost two decades. In recognition of the work she has done as executive director of CTAC, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) has appointed Sprang to its steering committee for the next two years.

Sprang was invited to the NCTSN’s steering committee because of her dedication to improving clinical services for children experiencing trauma. She said the appointment will only help strengthen CTAC’s role as a national leader in the field.

“Raising the standard of care is very much in line with the goals of the center and the UK College of Medicine,” Sprang said.

Researching and improving care for 18 years

Beginning in 1999, a series of research and clinical projects were funded at UK to understand child maltreatment and improve the care these victims receive. Eight years later, the UK Board of Trustees voted to establish a center that would encourage scientists and clinicians to conduct clinical research and provide evidence-based services to children and families who have been exposed to a wide range of traumatic events. Since then, the CTAC has been a leader in studying and treating children who have experienced trauma.

The NCTSN, established by Congress in 2000, includes 79 centers of excellence that work to implement policy, improve clinical care and develop products. Ten years ago, CTAC was awarded membership in the network.

Bringing the latest innovations to the Commonwealth

Two living laboratories in UK CTAC enable clinicians and researchers to test and adopt clinical strategies for reducing the harm associated with violence exposure. The assessment lab includes families referred through the court system or child protective services. The federally funded treatment lab brings the latest innovations in child trauma treatment to Kentucky and provides a venue for investigating the harms associated with specific types of traumatic experiences.

Assessing the impact of traumatic events on children isn’t the only kind of research currently being conducted at CTAC. The center also runs a Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) Practice Lab, aimed at improving the work environment for care providers. STS is caused by frequent indirect exposure to traumatic material and can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in trauma providers. The STS Practice Lab is a place where CTAC can develop and test new tools and interventions to address STS.

“Raising the standard of care for traumatized children mandates that the child-serving workforce be protected as well,” Sprang said.


Next steps:

  • Find out how research being done at UK CTAC is helping combat child trauma and improve care.
  • Learn more about the Kentucky Children’s Hospital, which provides more than 30 advanced sub-specialty programs in children’s health.
UK Shriners

Watch: UK Advanced Eye Care doctors discuss new state-of-the-art clinic

The experts at UK Advanced Eye Care provide comprehensive care for patients of all ages  from routine eye exams to treatment for the most complex ophthalmic issues.

Later this month, we’re opening a new state-of-the-art clinic, allowing us to provide even better care for our patients. Starting March 20, all UK Advanced Eye Care appointments will be located in the leased space within the new Shriners Medical Center building, just across South Limestone from the UK Albert B. Chandler Hospital.

We sat down with a few of our eye care providers to talk about the beautiful new space and what patients can expect when they visit. Check it out!


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In the era of electronic medical records, one of the greatest opportunities for health innovation lies not in a clinic, but in medical data.

New institute at UK translates medical data into better healthcare

In the modern era of electronic medical records and increasingly sophisticated care, one of the greatest opportunities for health innovation and discoveries lies not in a lab or a clinic, but in medical data.

The progressively routine acquisition of many types of data in healthcare has created numerous opportunities, as well as challenges, in the analysis and interpretation of this data. The emerging academic discipline of data science – which covers the entire life-cycle of data collection, curation, annotation, provenance, integration, exploration, sharing, secondary use and bioinformatics analytics – has the potential to enable great advances in healthcare and medical knowledge.

At UK, the new Institute for Biomedical Informatics (IBI) is leading the effort to translate big data into usable information and leverage the latest technologies to advance biomedical sciences.

The IBI makes it easier to share medical data

A campuswide center for data-intensive, interdisciplinary research, the IBI promotes translational team science, leads informatics and data science training programs, shares research and data infrastructure and enables technology innovation. UK is uniquely positioned in this capacity because of its large health data repository housed in the UK Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) Enterprise Data Trust, which contains regional, state, and national data on clinical and health outcomes.

GQ Zhang, PhD, leads the IBI. He also serves as chief of the Division of Biomedical Informatics (BMI) in the UK College of Medicine and director of the biomedical informatics core of the CCTS. The division of BMI in the College of Medicine serves as the academic home for a group of IBI faculty, while the overlap with the CCTS BMI core connects IBI to the clinical and translational research enterprise.

“The institute is a platform where we can more readily coordinate data and informatics efforts across the entire campus, engaging in research, educational and collaborative initiatives,” Zhang said.

Collaboration fosters success

The IBI has already made great strides in its mission since it was approved by the UK Board of Trustees in June 2016. In only six months, the institute has won external funding, launched collaborative and educational initiatives, and expanded its research staff. It is also now inviting faculty to join as IBI members.

In August 2016, the IBI was awarded a $2.4 million Major Research Instrumentation Award from the National Science Foundation to create a big data computing infrastructure, called the Kentucky Research Informatics Cloud (KyRIC). KyRIC will enhance advanced computational infrastructure for accelerating scientific discovery through computational- and data-intensive research that uses the enormous amounts of data available at UK.

Collaborative team science is central to the work of the IBI. Launching and using KyRIC involves concerted effort with the UK Center for Computational Science and the research computing unit of UK Information Technology Service. The IBI also works closely with the CCTS, integrating the biomedical informatics core of the CCTS with academic and research units across the UK campus. Additionally, the IBI played an instrumental role in the CCTS’ successful application for a second $20 million Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health, awarded in August 2016.

Extending work beyond campus

The IBI has also started working with the UK Office of Technology Commercialization (OTC) for invention and commercialization opportunities. Potential collaborative projects include patent applications for IBI’s inventions in data management and visualization platforms.

“We plan to work very actively together on a number of fronts, because we are one of the most software- and informatics-intensive units on campus. We create tools and there’s a lot of synergy in tying such efforts to tech transfer,” Zhang said. “I think both parties are very excited because software and technology remain among the most active business sectors for innovation.”

IBI’s collaborations extend beyond campus, as well. The institute serves as the data coordination center of the Center for SUDEP (sudden and unexpected death of a person diagnosed with epilepsy) Research at Case Western Reserve University. Zhang also serves as one of the principal investigators on a collaboration with Harvard University to develop a big data resource called the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR), which provides access to a rich collection of sleep research data collected on children and adults across the U.S. Both collaborations are funded by the National Institutes of Health.

The IBI is growing rapidly

To support its rapidly growing portfolio of research, educational offerings and collaborations, the IBI has hired two new faculty members and is currently recruiting assistant, associate or full professors in the division of biomedical informatics in the UK College of Medicine. IBI and university leadership are also considering the possibility of establishing a campus-wide graduate informatics program with multiple curricula pathways from data to discovery.

“Leveraging UK’s wealth of data is central to our mission to improve care, make health discoveries, and train the upcoming generation of health professionals and researchers,” said UK Provost Tim Tracy. “The creation of the IBI reflects the university’s commitment to addressing the challenges and opportunities associated with big data. In a short time, the IBI has established robust infrastructure and expertise in informatics that will no doubt lead to exciting opportunities for discovery and learning.”


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Celebrating UK HealthCare’s African-American pioneers

In honor of Black History Month, we’re celebrating some of the African-Americans who have helped shape the story of UK HealthCare.

Their achievements and accomplishments span decades and have influenced the fields of science, medicine and health. Learn more about these individuals in the slideshow below.


Dr. Carl Watson

In 1959, Dr. Carl Watson was the first African-American to graduate from the UK College of Medicine. In 1963, Dr. Watson was among five hand-picked UK medical students to take part in an experimental study tour abroad. He served three months in Jamaica learning preventive medicine.

Dr. Clay Simpson Jr.


In 1958, Dr. Clay Simpson Jr. was the first African-American to graduate from the UK College of Public Health. In 1991, he was presented the Distinguished Presidential Rank Award by President George Bush. In 2004, Simpson was inducted into the UK College of Public Health Hall of Fame.

William Schultz

William Schultz, vice president of the Class of 1954, was the first African-American to graduate from the UK College of Pharmacy.

Marsha Hughes-Rease

In 1972, Marsha Hughes-Rease became the first African-American graduate from the UK College of Nursing and was commissioned as a Navy Nurse Corps officer shortly after graduation. She has been recognized as one of the college’s 50 outstanding alumni.

Dr. Benjamin Nero

In 1967, Dr. Benjamin Nero was the first African-American to graduate from the UK College of Dentistry. He traveled to Haiti to provide dental care to island residents and has mentored many dental students and young dentists.

 

Drs. Keisha Houston, Tourette Jackson and Regina Washington

In 2002, Dr. Keisha Houston, left, and Dr. Tourette Jackson, center, were the first African-American female graduates of the UK College of Public Health. In 2006, Dr. Regina Washington, right, was the first African-American female to earn a doctorate from the UK College of Public Health.

Drs. Melody Holliman Prinkleton and Michelle Ramsey

In 2008, Dr. Melody Holliman Prinkleton, left, and Dr. Michelle Ramsey, right, shared the honor of being the first African-Americans to graduate from UK with four degrees. Each earned two bachelor’s degrees, a master’s degree and a doctorate degree. Both earned doctorates in physical therapy.


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UK nurse anesthetist tests new way to reduce post-surgery memory loss

UK nurse anesthetist tests new way to reduce post-surgery memory loss

No patient wants to remember the traumatic experience of going under the knife.

With the conveniences of modern medicine, anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists erase the memory and pain of invasive surgeries by administering medicines that induce relaxation and unconsciousness. Patients awake from a deep sleep with no memory of the surgery, the incision or the physical harm done to their bodies.

But 10 years ago, Zohn Centimole, a nurse anesthetist at UK HealthCare, noticed his elderly patients were concerned about short-term memory loss, which they attributed to anesthetics. While only temporary, the cognitive deficits caused by anesthesia can linger for several days post-surgery, a period of time when important medical decisions and conversations take place.

Investigating better anesthesia techniques

One of Centimole’s senior patients, who had experienced memory changes after a previous surgery, feared the same effect as she prepared for another surgery. Rather than worry about her postoperative pain and recovery, the patient was fixated on whether she would retain her mental capacity post-surgery.

“My conversation with her that day was one of those imprinting memories,” Centimole said. “Her fear was so sincere and impactful that I can still see her face and everything about the situation.”

This motivated Centimole to investigate more precise techniques of delivering anesthesia and minimizing exposure in middle-aged and senior patients. Centimole, a native of Plum Springs, Ky., harnessed the brain-reading capabilities of a Bispectral Index (BIS) monitor, an electroencephalographic (EEG) technology, to tailor anesthesia to the individual needs of patients.

A collaborative approach to research

Centimole recently defended his doctoral dissertation in the UK College of Nursing, which found anesthesia guided by EEG-derived monitoring was superior to the standard administration and effective in reducing cognitive decline three to five days post-operation. The Bispectral Index System (BIS) measures EEG and converts changes in real time to a score, which anesthesia providers associate with depth of consciousness.

The CANTAB-MCI (Cambridge Cognition) cognitive battery was used to evaluate patient cognitive performance before operation, three to five days post-operation and three to five months post-operation. With its touch-screen format, the battery reduces administrator bias and is cost effective. The EEG-guided technique showed to reduce the cognitive deficits experienced in the post-surgical period, with patients reporting higher cognitive functioning immediately after their surgery.

Collaborating with faculty members in the UK Department of Surgery, the UK Sanders-Brown Center on Aging and the UK College of Nursing, Centimole conducted an experiment to test the cognitive functioning of surgical patients. He compared those whose anesthesia levels were monitored through a cognitive battery with patients who received surgery without the cognitive battery, as well as a control group of individuals unaffected by anesthesia.

Centimole recruited patients for the study in the preoperative clinic, often recruiting a spouse as the non-surgical counterpart for the control group. Eighty-eight surgical patients were randomized to the BIS cognitive battery condition or the non-battery condition. Both experimental groups, as well as individuals in the non-surgery control group, completed the CANTAB neuropsychological functioning test. The test measures the test taker’s short-term memory, reaction time, verbal memory and visual learning capabilities.

Encouraging results

The 39 surgical patients who received the BIS cognitive battery condition demonstrated high levels of cognitive functioning post-surgery. Centimole also found that patients who smoked reported lower cognitive function post-surgery, suggesting a correlation between smoking and lower cognition after surgery. The results of the study suggest that EEG-derived technology has the potential to assist anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists in tailoring their care to individual cognitive characteristics.

“We were looking for a way to assess cognitive frailty in patients,” Centimole said. “Being precise and tailoring anesthesia will vary from patient to patient. EEG-derived technology allows you to balance exposure without unwanted side effects. We want to keep tight control over exposure, and this is what that device was engineered to do.”

Centimole believes EEG-derived devices can enhance care and improve engagement and alertness in patients who were disadvantaged by the memory loss caused during their surgery. Further, the CANTAB-MCI battery was cost-effective, and it showed the potential to help providers evaluate frailty in patients preparing to undergo surgery.

“The novelty of the project is knowing there is a relationship between EEG-guided anesthesia and cognitive function,” he said. “But we also present evidence that this cognitive battery is financially appropriate and has a great ease of use.”


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