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sports physical therapy residency program

New sports physical therapy residency program begins at UK

When Morgan Lester tore her ACL in high school, she knew she wanted a career working with athletes. In 2016, Lester achieved her dream and completed her doctor of physical therapy, or DPT, at the UK College of Health Sciences.

When Lester completed her studies, she began working full-time as a physical therapist, but kept her eye on the sports physical therapy residency program taking shape at UK. The program was developed and created, and on Sept. 1, Lester became the program’s first resident.

Completing a residency program after earning a DPT is uncommon. There are thousands of physical therapy graduates each year, but there are far fewer accredited programs in the nation that offer a specialized residency. The sports physical therapy program at UK wants to change that, aiming to become the first accredited program of its kind at UK HealthCare.

Earning accreditation

The program is currently in a two-phase process to become accredited. The guidelines and requirements of the program have been set, and soon a team from the American Physical Therapy Association will observe Lester and her mentors in order to complete the accreditation process.

Ryan McGuire and John Jurjans, staff physical therapists and directors of the sports physical therapy residency program, worked with members of UK HealthCare, UK Sports Medicine and the UK College of Health Sciences’ physical therapy program to build a collaborative program.

“A team approach to rehabilitation is what works best for an athlete, and this is the best kind of program to demonstrate that,” Jurjans said.

A resource for her hometown

As part of her residency, Lester works with physicians, athletic trainers and physical therapists. She frequently works with Jenni Williams, an athletic trainer assigned to work with Lafayette High School athletics. This experience gives Lester the best opportunity to see an athlete’s journey from the initial injury, to physician diagnosis, physical therapy rehabilitation and return to play. Seeing multiple perspectives throughout the residency will better prepare Lester to work with injured athletes in a way that simply working in an office might not.

After completing the one-year residency, Lester plans to return to her hometown of Louisa, Ky., with her husband, who is a student in the UK College of Dentistry.

“When I was in high school and had my injury, I had to come all the way to Lexington to have functional testing and see the doctor,” she said. “I’m hoping to be a resource to the area so people don’t have to drive the 2½ hours to Lexington to get the care they need.”


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knee replacement

Don’t fear knee replacement, says surgeon Dr. Stephen Duncan

Dr. Stephen Duncan

Dr. Stephen Duncan

Written by Dr. Stephen Duncan, an orthopaedic surgeon at UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine.

From simple wear and tear to an old high school sports injury, there are many reasons why you might develop debilitating knee arthritis that affects your daily life.

Over time, this arthritis causes the cartilage – protective cushion between the bones in your knee – to wear out. Unfortunately, once the knee cartilage has worn out, there are not great regenerative treatment options to help restore it.

At this point, you might be offered a knee replacement.

Fear of replacement

Once the word “replacement” is said, some patients fear the worst. And this fear prevents many individuals from going through with the surgery.

Although it takes about a year to fully recover from knee replacement, the truth is that the surgery can help you get back to enjoying the activities you love.

One common misconception is that knee replacement is only for older patients. That’s not the case. There isn’t a minimum age for knee replacement, and younger and older patients alike can undergo the surgery.

Surgery specifics

Another misconception about knee replacement is that we remove a large portion of the thigh bone (femur) or shin bone (tibia). Actually, we only remove about 5-9 millimeters of bone, which is about the size of a pen or pencil.

It’s almost better to think of knee replacement as a “recapping” or “resurfacing” procedure. We remove the worn-out portion of the cartilage and place caps of metal on the ends of the femur and the tibia.

This provides a strong surface to then place a plastic or polyethylene spacer in between these two surfaces. The replacement is often held to your bone with cement, which helps keep it in place.

Partial replacement

Another fear about replacement surgery is that it won’t last for very long.

Although early iterations of this surgery typically lasted around 10-15 years, the current implants are designed to last twice as long – between 20-30 years.

That means instead of having to wait until a patient is older, we can offer knee replacement to younger patients to help improve their quality of life earlier in life.

For some individuals, a partial knee replacement may be an option. This entails only recapping one part of the knee. If only one part is worn out, it doesn’t make sense to replace the entire knee, and a partial replacement might be a better option. Today, we’re doing more and more partial knee replacements to help improve patients’ pain and function.

Recovery

Regardless of the surgery, it does take about one year to fully recover and get back to trusting your knee to do activities such as hiking, jogging or tennis.

The good news is that you should be able to return to simple activities like shopping within four to six weeks after the procedure.

How we can help

The team at UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine offers a comprehensive knee replacement program, including advanced partial knee replacement techniques.

This year, the U.S. News & World Report’s Best Hospitals Rankings designated our program as High Performing in Knee Replacement. Learn more about our program and what you can expect during the knee replacement process.


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Dr. Carolyn Hettrich

Shoulder specialist, researcher joins UK Sports Medicine team

UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine welcomed shoulder specialist Dr. Carolyn Hettrich to the team earlier this summer. Hettrich will see patients, take care of UK athletes and conduct research.

Originally from Portland, Ore., Hettrich has studied and worked across the country. She completed her undergraduate studies in Los Angeles at Pomona College and went to medical school at the University of Washington. After graduating medical school, Hettrich completed a residency at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York and a fellowship at Vanderbilt University. She has spent the past six years working in Iowa.

As a member of the team at UK Sports Medicine, Hettrich said she is looking forward to providing care for patients with shoulder disorders and conducting leading-edge research studies.

In fact, one of the reasons Hettrich decided to join UK HealthCare is because of UK’s emphasis on research.

“I’ll have the opportunity to do the research I’m interested in,” she said.

Hettrich’s research interests focus on three areas: clinical outcomes after shoulder surgery, computer modeling for shoulder replacement, and tendon and bone healing. Hettrich is the principal investigator on the largest prospective study in the world for shoulder instability surgery. The study has 950 patients currently enrolled and is operating at 12 sites nationwide.

Her research expertise meshes well with work already being done at UK Sports Medicine, particularly the work of Dr. Christian Lattermann. Hettrich and Lattermann are both part of the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) and share a mentor.

“We are very proud Dr. Hettrich joined UK Sports Medicine,” Lattermann said. “She brings an extraordinary expertise in shoulder-related, patient-centered translational research, which accelerates our efforts at UK to become a national leader in patient-related outcomes research.” Additionally, she is an outstanding shoulder surgeon, Lattermann said.

When she’s not conducting research, treating patients or working as a team physician for the UK football team, Hettrich is looking forward to continuing her advocacy work on behalf of her patients. Her master’s degree in public health focused on health policy gives her insight into how she can advocate for her patients and research funding.

Each year, on Research Capitol Hill Days, Hettrich takes patients to meet with congressional leaders in Washington D.C. to show the direct impact of research funding. Hettrich is especially interested in musculoskeletal research because musculoskeletal conditions affect half of the adult population in the U.S., with expenditures related to these conditions accounting for nearly 6 percent of the gross domestic product.


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ultrasound-guided injections

Innovative pain-relief treatment allows woman to enjoy trip to Italy

Geri Maschio spent more than a year planning a girls trip to Italy, but pain in her hip threatened to keep her from getting on a plane and experiencing the cities she’d been dreaming about.

Maschio started experiencing pain in her hip two years earlier. She tried a variety of treatment options to find relief, but none fixed the issue. Unfortunately, physical therapy didn’t help, and Maschio needed a hip replacement.

She was referred by her primary care doctor to Dr. Jeffrey Selby, an orthopaedic surgeon at UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine.

By that time, Maschio’s pain had become too severe for her to continue without treatment. Hip replacements require about four to six weeks of recovery, but Maschio’s trip was quickly approaching, and she refused to forgo her long-planned vacation.

“I wasn’t going to be the person who bailed at the last minute – the trip was a year in the making,” she said.

Another route to pain relief

Luckily, Selby knew of another orthopaedic physician at UK who might be able to help. He referred her to Dr. Kyle Smoot, who suggested using ultrasound-guided injections to treat Maschio’s hip pain. The procedure required little recovery time and would allow Maschio to travel.

Ultrasound-guided injections are used to treat pain stemming from conditions like chronic tendinopathy, muscle tears and carpal tunnel. They’re used in a variety of joints – including the hip and knee – and can also be used diagnostically to identify and differentiate a patient’s pain.

Maschio felt prepared for the procedure, which was performed while she was awake and numbed, but wasn’t sure what the outcome would be.

“I trusted Dr. Smoot because I was totally confident seeing anyone Dr. Selby recommended,” she said. “And Dr. Smoot and the athletic trainer [Amy Waugh] were so kind when they explained everything to me.”

The day before her trip to Italy, Maschio had an appointment with Smoot to receive her injections. Recovery was simple, she said. She let the numbing medication wear off and then felt immediate relief from the pain that had threatened to keep her from going on the trip of a lifetime.

The very next day, Maschio got on the plane for an eight-hour trip. She spent 12 days in Italy walking five to seven miles a day – pain-free.

“I know I wouldn’t have made it on this trip without Dr. Smoot and Dr. Selby – I couldn’t have done it without them,” she said.


Next steps:

  • Learn more about UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine, which provides leading-edge treatment for a variety of injuries and conditions.
  • When Patty Lane was diagnosed with arthritis in her hip, she was told her time as a competitive triathlete was over. Not willing to give up on her dreams, Patty turned to UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine for a second opinion. Read Patty’s story.
muscle soreness

How to reduce muscle soreness after exercise

Written by Laurie Blunk, an athletic trainer at UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine.

When you try a new exercise, lift heavier weights or run steeper hills, your muscles experience strain and micro-tearing at the cellular level, which can cause them to become sore.

Thankfully, there are ways to prevent and treat muscle soreness. Foam rolling, stretching and eating foods with anti-inflammatory properties can help reduce pain, alleviate discomfort and get you back to your favorite exercise.

Make sure to stretch

Stretching is an important recovery step in reducing muscle soreness and preventing injuries. Muscles can’t react to changes in exercise or intensity effectively when they are tight, but stretching before you work out can help muscles move more effectively.

Static stretching, or holding a stretch without movement, can be done before exercise, but is most important after activity.

Kinetic stretching, or warming up muscles with movement, is also beneficial. Your muscles will get the most benefit when you combine kinetic stretching with static stretching.

Roll it out

Foam rolling has become a popular recovery technique. Foam rolling consists of using a cylindrical tool, called a foam roller, and body weight to massage muscles.

Foam rolling can be helpful when combined with stretching because it breaks up adhesions in the soft tissue around the muscle, allowing for a better and deeper stretch.

Consider using a foam roller both before and after exercise for different reasons. Rolling out before can help break up adhesions, and rolling out after acts as a form of self-massage, which has been shown to aid in muscle recovery.

Targeting large muscle groups with the foam roller, like your leg muscles (quads, hamstrings, calves, glutes etc.) offers the most benefit. Foam rollers can also be used on the large muscles of the back. If you have muscle soreness from the previous day’s exercise, you can foam roll on subsequent days to help alleviate muscle soreness.

It is recommended to foam roll soon after activity and every 24 hours thereafter to reduce soreness.

Food for recovery

Diet also plays a role in recovery. Tomatoes, olive oil, green leafy vegetables, nuts, fatty fish like salmon and tuna, and fruits (especially berries) have anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce muscle soreness. Try working these healthy foods into your diet to help alleviate pain after exercise.

Don’t let muscle soreness deter you from trying a new workout. Just be sure recovery through stretching, foam rolling and a healthy diet are also part of your routine.


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UK Sports Medicine Research Institute

New UK Sports Medicine Research Institute focuses on injury prevention, athlete performance

UK celebrated on Tuesday the opening of the new UK Sports Medicine Research Institute (SMRI), spearheaded by the UK College of Health Sciences and supported in part by a grant from the U.S. Department of Defense.

The 10,000-square-foot facility, part of the UK Nutter Training Facility on campus, will conduct research into injury prevention and performance optimization for professional and collegiate athletes, the tactical athletes of the U.S. military, and physically active people of all ages in Kentucky and beyond.

“Our research and scholarly endeavors offer the brightest hope for transformation and change for our Commonwealth and the broader world we serve,” UK President Dr. Eli Capilouto said. “This sentiment fuels the work of this university, and it fuels the work of the Sports Medicine Research Institute.”

Capilouto held the institute up as an example of the university’s efforts to collaborate across disciplines in addressing the challenges and disparities that face the Commonwealth, noting that seven UK colleges are involved in the work of the SMRI, in addition to personnel from UK HealthCare.

There is no similar facility within 400 miles of Lexington.

State-of-the-art technology

The SMRI is outfitted with sophisticated equipment to assess biomechanical, physiological, musculoskeletal and neurocognitive health. It’s supported by a team of eight core faculty, staff, and research assistants and 40 affiliate faculty. In addition to its Lexington location, SMRI operates a facility in Camp Lejeune, N.C., where its team works directly with MARSOC – the Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command.

A biomechanics laboratory conducts motion analysis studies using 14 cameras and a dual-force plate system in the floor, similar to the technology used to make video games and animated movies. Equipment shaped like a horse simulates realistic movement for jockeys and other equestrians.

There is also a neurocognitive lab that uses virtual reality to assess visual acuity, reaction times and balance, which are critical measurements for concussion recovery.

Other equipment is designed to measure oxygen consumption, workload and metabolic costs, physiological stress, and the influence of sleep deprivation/fatigue, all of which are important contributors to musculoskeletal strength, endurance, operational performance and injury risk.

Dr. Scott Lephart, dean of the UK College of Health Sciences and founder of the SMRI, leads the $4.2 million Department of Defense grant that helped launch the institute. He said that the military can adapt from lessons learned in athletics and vice-versa.

“The elite warriors of the U.S. military are expected to be at peak performance in extremely dangerous and unpredictable situations, and there’s no room – either financially or personally – for them to sustain a preventable injury,” said Lephart, who is also UK Endowed Chair of Orthopaedic Research. “Our research with athletes both military and civilian is mutually beneficial, and it will result in strategies for injury prevention and performance for every walk of life.”

Impacts in education, health

University of Kentucky Provost Tim Tracy emphasized that the SMRI serves an educational need, in addition to its missions in research and clinical care, noting that the program provides educational experiences for both undergraduate and graduate students across the university.

“With this emphasis on collaboration, the different branches of UK’s mission – education, research, service and care – converge in the work of the SMRI,” he said.

Dr. Michael Karpf, UK executive vice president for health affairs, predicts that SMRI’s impact will extend far beyond the realms of tactical warriors and professional athletes.

“SMRI is a powerful merger of research, outreach and collaboration, enhancing UK HealthCare’s efforts to address chronic disease and poor health in Kentucky,” Karpf said.

UK Director of Athletics Mitch Barnhart noted that the SMRI was not just a valuable resource for UK athletes, but for professional and youth athletes across Kentucky and nationally.

“This is yet another example of the power of partnership on our campus,” Barnhart said. “By working together, we are creating cutting-edge resources for athletes both here at UK and beyond. The efforts of the SMRI will help minimize injury and maximize athletic performance in sports ranging from football to NASCAR and from basketball to horse racing.”

UK Sports Medicine Research Institute

Leaders from UK, UK HealthCare and UK Athletics came together to celebrate the opening of the SMRI.


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In the latest edition of Making the Rounds, Dr. Scott Mair discusses always wanting to be a doctor, his hobbies and why he enjoys living in Lexington.

A passion for sports led Dr. Scott Mair to orthopaedic surgery

Making the RoundsWe sat down with Dr. Scott Mair, an orthopaedic surgeon at UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine, for our latest installment of Making the Rounds, a blog series that introduces you to some of our providers at UK HealthCare. Dr. Mair specializes in shoulder and knee arthroscopy and shoulder reconstruction.

How did you first become interested in medicine?

I grew up in Rochester, Minn., and everybody there is a doctor, basically. My dad was a pediatrician. I didn’t know there was anything else to do. I’m kind of kidding, but there are an unbelievable number of doctors there, per capita, just because the Mayo Clinic’s there and it’s a small town. So obviously I knew a lot of doctors, and they seemed to like what they did.

Why did you decide to specialize in orthopaedics?

It had more to do with my love of sports. I wasn’t a spectacular athlete, but I played a lot of sports, and I enjoyed being around sports. So when I would hear about team doctors, it seemed like a good fit. I get to work with several of the UK teams, which is a lot of fun.

What types of injuries do you treat?

Mostly what I see is shoulder problems. Probably about 80 percent of my practice is shoulder things. A lot of young athletes with stability problems, and then older people who have rotator cuff problems. But I see all kinds of other, different shoulder abnormalities, too.

What should patients know about rehab after surgery?

People think rehab is something where they have to push through the pain and do everything they’re supposed to do – which, in certain surgeries or certain rehabs, is important. But a lot of times, it’s almost the opposite, where once people start feeling well, we’ve got to slow them down because some things take months to heal.

For a lot of my younger patients especially, after a couple of months when we’ve stabilized their shoulder, they feel like they’re good as new, and they start doing things they’re not supposed to do before they’re healed. So half my time I spend trying to slow people down while they’re healing up after surgery instead of pushing them along, like you do in some surgeries.

What do you do in your spare time?

I have four daughters, so most of the time I’m doing things with them. I used to play a lot of golf, but they’re not much into that, so I spend a lot of time chasing them around for their sports and things. They range from age 12 to 20 now.

Describe your ideal weekend. 

I’d be at a UK basketball game and hanging out with my family after that, doing something with our friends. Maybe go fishing.

What do you like most about living in Lexington?

I’ve been here about 18 years and I think it’s a fun place. There’s a lot to do, it’s easy to get to big cities, but it’s not such a big place that you can’t get around where you need to go. And it’s got friendly people.

What’s your favorite movie?

I like some of the old-school movies like Caddyshack and Fletch. Those are probably still my favorites.


Check out our video interview with Dr. Scott Mair below, where he talks about why working with the student-athletes at UK is so rewarding.


Next steps:

  • Learn more about UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine, which provides leading-edge treatment for a variety of injuries and conditions.
  • When Patty Lane was diagnosed with arthritis in her hip, she was told her time as a competitive triathlete was over. That’s when she turned to UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine for a second opinion. Read Patty’s story.
Dr. Lattermann, director for Cartilage Repair and Restoration at UK HealthCare, spoke about what inspired his career in sports medicine.

Watch: 5 questions with sports surgeon Dr. Christian Lattermann

Each day brings something different for Dr. Christian Lattermann; that’s one of the things that keeps him passionate about his job.

As director of the Center for Cartilage Repair and Restoration at UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine, Lattermann treats patients, does community outreach, conducts research and mentors students.

Even though he’s a leader in the field, he says his patients teach him something new every day.

Watch this episode of “Five Questions” to learn how a semi-professional soccer career inspired Lattermann to become an orthopaedic surgeon and why he’s so excited about the sports medicine research happening here at UK.


Next steps:

  • Learn more about the UK Center for Cartilage Repair and Restoration, which offers operative and nonoperative treatments for a wide array of cartilage-related conditions.
  • After a torn meniscus and a failed surgery, marathon runner Lisa Hall was told she would need a knee replacement. Not willing to give up on her goals, Lisa turned to UK Sports Medicine and Dr. Lattermann for help. Read Lisa’s story.
Patty Lane had arthritis in her hip that prevented her from running. But Dr. Stephen Duncan offered a surgery that enabled her to continue to her passion.

After hip surgery at UK, triathlete pursues her passion without limits

When Patty Lane’s orthopaedic surgeon told her that her time as an endurance athlete was over, she was so upset she didn’t even tell her family.

The stiffness that she had been experiencing in her hip was diagnosed as arthritis, and she felt like her body had let her down. She contemplated what the diagnosis would mean and if she could be happy standing on the sideline at races. When she talked to her son’s triathlon coach about her diagnosis and prognosis, he gave her valuable advice: “Go see a surgeon who’s an athlete.”

Her research led her to Dr. Stephen Duncan, an orthopaedic surgeon at UK Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine who is also an avid cyclist. When Lane, who lives near Ashland, Ky., arrived for her appointment with Duncan, the options she received from him were “day and night” compared to what she’d heard originally.

“He told me he’d have me active again and gave me a variety of options I hadn’t been told about earlier,” Lane said.

Total hip arthroplasty

Duncan recommended a total hip arthroplasty, or THA, which involves removing the femoral head (the round top of the femur) and shaving off the cartilage inside the hip socket. A titanium shell is then placed into the socket, and a titanium stem is fitted inside the thigh bone. Finally, a plastic liner is placed inside the socket and a ceramic head is placed on the femoral component.

With a traditional THA, doctors discourage high-impact activities, as they increase the risk of fracturing and early wear. For Lane, Duncan used a newer technology called dual mobility, which uses a metal liner and two moving heads. This allows for less wear and tear, and decreases the risk of implant fracture. He also used a stem in her femur that has a special coating, which creates a natural connection between her femur bone and the implant. That helps prevent weakening of the bone in Lane’s femur around the stem, and also helps her avoid any pain in the femur that might be experienced with running.

Without Duncan, ‘I’d be done’

After six months of recovery, Lane was back to racing, winning her age group in a sprint-distance triathlon (half-mile swim, 12.4-mile bike, 3.1-mile run). In the time since, Lane has competed in more than 20 races, including the New York City Marathon, an ultra-marathon and multiple triathlons of varying distances.

Lane noticed early on in her journey that there was little information available about what it was like to return to endurance sports after a hip replacement or a surgery like hers. The few articles she found provided conflicting information or gave advice she didn’t feel was right. She read that you’re not the same athlete after hip surgery and that it would negatively affect her times. She also read accounts of how surgery had helped relieve stiffness and pain and led to better race results.

If Lane had listened to her first surgeon, she said, “I’d be done.” Duncan’s support and second opinion meant she could continue doing what she loved  being active and staying healthy.

“Get a second opinion, and find a doctor who is familiar with the sports discipline you’re interested in,” she said.

Duncan’s advice echoed Lane’s.

“I would recommend second opinions if someone is told that they need to give up their passion,” he said. “Whether it be cycling, golf, running or hockey, patients should know that there are surgical options that surgeons can tailor to fit each patient’s needs.”

There are a lot of places to find information about surgeons who may be able to help, he said.

“Seminars from surgeon leaders can be helpful,” Duncan said. “Patients themselves often are great advocates through word-of-mouth, online postings and online searches to find surgeons who are comfortable caring for these endurance athletes and have success getting patients back to their desired level of competition.”

If Lane hadn’t followed the advice of her son’s coach, she wouldn’t have been able to travel to Cozumel, Mexico, to compete as a member of Team USA Triathlon. Thanks to hard work and an unwillingness to give up, she will have the opportunity to compete in a duathlon (run, bike, run) in Canada this September. She has no limits on when she’ll have to stop competing and is excited to continue to compete (and win) races all over the world.

“[Duncan] knew how important it was to me to be active,” she said. “He was encouraging and had no hesitation that I’d be able to run again.”

Six months after her hip surgery, Patty Lane was back on her feet. She has since competed in more than 20 races, including the New York City Marathon, an ultra-marathon and multiple triathlons of varying distances.

Six months after her hip surgery, Patty Lane was back to racing. She has since competed in more than 20 races, including the New York City Marathon, an ultra-marathon and multiple triathlons.


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A torn ACL results in a significant risk of developing arthritis within 10 to 15 years. If you've torn your ACL, be on the lookout for arthritis symptoms.

A torn ACL could lead to arthritis, writes UK orthopaedic surgeon

Written by Christian Lattermann, MD, director of the UK Center for Cartilage Repair and Restoration

Christian Lattermann, MD

A torn anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of the most common knee injuries, with as many as 200,000 cases per year in the U.S. Young people under the age of 20 are at particular risk, in part because of participation in sports.

Despite the frequency of torn ACLs, many people don’t know that the injury results in a significant risk of developing arthritis within 10 to 15 years. Around 70 to 80 percent of patients with a torn ACL will develop arthritis within that time frame. Because most ACL injuries occur in young people, this means that arthritis could set in at a very early age. If a patient is 15 years old when she tears her ACL, for example, she could be struggling with arthritis by the age of 30.

The increased risk of arthritis is true regardless of whether the ACL tear is surgically repaired or not. The actual injury, and the knee’s inflammatory response to the trauma, seem to be the culprits. The ACL is one of four main ligaments in the knee, connecting the thighbone to the shinbone, and any injury severe enough to tear the ligament is likely to affect other parts of the knee, as well. We also see bruises to the bone and damage to the cartilage, meniscus or other ligaments with about half of all ACL injuries.

At UK, doctors and researchers are currently trying to find ways to reduce the risk of arthritis by interrupting the inflammatory process in the week following the ACL injury. We hope that our research will lead to better long-term outcomes for patients who experience ACL tears.

If you’ve torn your ACL in the past, be on the lookout for signs of arthritis in your knee. Symptoms include pain and swelling with activity. If you’re experiencing these symptoms, it’s best to consult an orthopaedic sports medicine specialist, who will be trained in issues related to ACL injury and recovery.

If you’ve recently experienced an ACL injury, the most important thing for your recovery is adequate rehabilitation. The musculature around the knee joint is the biggest factor to prevent re-injury. The re-tear rate for ACL reconstruction under the age of 20 is around 20 to 25 percent, but a large portion of that can be prevented by being enrolled and trained in injury prevention rehabilitation.


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